// php echo do_shortcode (‘[responsivevoice_button voice=”US English Male” buttontext=”Listen to Post”]’)?>
Something that is not a shock to professionals in the semiconductor industry is changing. According to what is now commonly known as Moore’s Law, based on an observation made in 1965, the number of transistors in an integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years for more than fifty years. The enormous size and variety of products that are key to everyday life today are a direct result of endless technological advances. With each passing year, semiconductors continue to follow the trend, in accordance with Moore’s Law, due to the demand for even smaller, lighter and more powerful semiconductors.
Against the background of the constant need for semiconductors in advanced applications in various industries, the problems of heat management are never lagging behind. If optimal performance and reliability of semiconductors is desired, thermal control is absolutely necessary. A characteristic shared by semiconductors is that while operating, they produce a large amount of excess heat, which, if not controlled, would reduce their productivity. The management of said heat comes in the form of heat dissipation techniques, transferring heat from the semiconductor and ultimately to the environment. The crux of the matter is that with the ever-decreasing size of semiconductors comes the ever-increasing amount of heat flux density we have to contend with. With this in mind, design engineers in various industries will need to be innovative in identifying heat management solutions to solve the semiconductor thermal problem.
“More innovation. Less heat. “This is the most accurate summary of T-Global Technology’s ideology, which is also the company’s slogan. It is a spirit that is reflected throughout the company in providing complete thermal products and services, helping companies to find the thermal solutions they need for current products as well as the technologies of the future At T-Global we have a complete manufacturing plant and a R&D department located in Taiwan We are constantly committed to researching countless innovations in order to be in line with the rapid change of the market and customer requirements.We offer a complete thermal solution for the customer in industries such as, but not limited to, information, communication, electronic, optical, automotive, lighting and medical devices.We not only have an experienced team for innovation and design, but T-Global also provides personalized design services to meet the specific needs of the client.
It is worth mentioning that T-Global has already received ISO9001, ISO14001 and IECQ certification. In addition, with high-quality product and machine management, our products are also RoHS, REACH and UL certified, allowing T-Global to offer a wide range of high-quality, reliable heat dissipation products. These products include flexible absorbent material, thermoelectric cooling chips, radiators, thermal interface material, heat pipes and steam chambers, the performance of which depends on the customer’s needs. Another remarkable service is the thermal simulation. Thermal simulation helps T-Global’s R&D department identify the best way to address the customer’s heat dissipation needs. In collaboration with Flotrend Corporation, T-Global is able to offer heat management solutions to customers during the initial product concept. This allows customers to develop reliable products that will function without excessive and expensive follow-up care. The following is a brief explanation of how T-Global’s R&D department can use the thermal simulation service for the benefit of the customer.
Assuming that the customer has a problem with heat dissipation, as follows:
Figure 1: Customer product.
Figure 2: Cross section of the customer’s product.
Table 1: Example of customer specifications.
In this particular scenario, the customer will need an analysis of the heat dissipation capabilities of their product. T-Global’s R&D department is well equipped to offer such an analysis, an analysis that will include:
- Learning and understanding the parameters and specifications provided by the client, as shown in the table above.
- Investigate how the heat problem is or is not resolved after you receive the design of the customer model (SolidWorks, STP, etc.) before T-Global makes any modifications. This allows engineers to assess possible routes that can be taken to reach a solution that will best meet the customer’s initial parameters.
- Exploring possible solutions and compiling a report to be presented to the client, and offering the best recommendation for the way forward.
In the figure below, what can be seen is the result of thermal simulation (using FloTherm XT) of the processor selected by the customer, assuming that no heat dissipation mechanism is implemented. This allows engineers to monitor how well the customer’s heat dissipation solution would work (given the CPU transition temperature when the heat dissipation module is not implemented) in a real setting and whether it will meet the connection temperature of the processor. CPU requirements.
Figure 3: Processor temperature (and PCB) without heat dissipation.
The customer’s complete product is then simulated, remembering that the customer’s specifications must be followed. The results of this particular simulation are shown below.
Figure 4: Processor temperature with heat dissipation realization.
From the above results, the engineers make an analysis and draw conclusions, one of which is the ability of the product case to absorb and dissipate heat to the ambient air, thus reducing the processors to 111.55 ⁰C from 202.54 ⁰C. In addition, engineers can also identify why the customer’s design does not work at will (satisfying the maximum CPU operating temperature parameter):
- A notable disadvantage of this heat dissipation problem is the customer-set ambient temperature. It is too close in size to the maximum operating temperature of the processor (transition). This small difference between the two temperatures, under conditions of natural convection, is an obstacle to the ability to dissipate the heat of the customer’s product.
- Another possible problem would be the use and size of the heat distributor. The heat distributor adds thermal resistance to the heat flow from the processor to the fins located on the surface of the product cover. This means that a small amount of heat is transferred to the fins, while most of the heat is absorbed by the PCB, as well as the air circulating inside the customer’s product.
Once the above-mentioned obstacles have been identified, possible solutions can be devised and explored. The heat distributor is tested first due to the stipulation made by the customer that the ambient temperature is variable and cannot be changed. However, if necessary, it can also be researched and recommendations made to customers.
With regard to the heat distributor, two possible solutions are being studied:
- Reduce the thickness of the heat distributor and subsequently increase the position of the printed circuit board to take into account the proposed change.
- Complete rejection of the heat distributor and subsequent “leakage” at the base of the central blades to take account of the proposed change.
The corresponding results are given below:
Figure 5: Processor temperature with modified heat distributor thickness.
Figure 6: Processor temperature without heat sink.
The results shown above show that the modifications made to the heat distributor have little effect on the temperature of the processor (connector). In addition, the results also suggest that the initial assumption about the relatively small difference between ambient temperature and compound temperature is in fact correct. This then prompts the study of ambient temperature as a variable, as opposed to a constant. It is expected that the bonding temperature will show a more significant change as the ambient temperature decreases, in contrast to the relatively small changes that have been observed so far. The results of the above investigation are given below.
Figure 7: Original customer design with ambient temperature lower than 70 ⁰C: a.) 60 ⁰C, b.) 50 ⁰C and c.) 40 ⁰C.
Figure 8: Modified thickness of the heat exchanger at ambient temperatures lower than 70 ⁰C: a.) 60 ⁰C, b.) 50 ⁰C and c.) 40 ⁰C.
Figure 9: Without modification of the heat distributor at ambient temperatures lower than 70 ⁰C: a.) 60 ⁰C, b.) 50 ⁰C and c.) 40 ⁰C.
Table 2: Summary of the results of the thermal simulation.
From these results, it can be seen that lowering the ambient temperature allows for a larger temperature gradient, which in turn means that more heat can be transferred from the processor to the case and ultimately to the ambient air. In addition, lowering the ambient temperature without any changes to the original design of the customer’s product results in a connection temperature that satisfies the performance requirements of the processor.
At this point, T-Global engineers will compile a report describing the results of the various thermal simulations and suggest the best possible solution. The customer will be advised to re-evaluate the conditions around the initial ambient temperature specifications before sending his product to market.