Computers have a huge amount of tasks that they perform in even a few seconds, which leads to the need for a central processing unit (CPU) to help manage and coordinate these tasks.

In this blog you will learn what the CPU is and how it works as a central component of the computer to ensure that it works to the maximum efficiency.

What is a processor and what is its purpose?

The CPU (CPU or just CPU) is the main chip in a computer that is responsible for performing all its tasks.

Often called the “brain,” the processor tells all the other components in the computer what to do based on the instructions given to it by the software running on that computer.

Processors exist in many devices other than traditional computers such as smartphones, TVs and tablets.

Where is the CPU?

In a computer, the processor is usually located in the center of the system, directly connected to the motherboard. It is usually under a cooling fan or heatsink, as the processor would be damaged by overheating without a proper cooling mechanism. Socket processors can be removed and replaced as needed over time.

In many modern applications, the processor can be integrated directly into an integrated circuit with memory interfaces and input / output devices, becoming a system-on-a-chip (SoC). This is especially common in finite and mobile solutions.

What are the main parts of a processor?

There are three main parts to a CPU: the control unit (CU), the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), and the registers.

  1. Control unit (CU): This regulates the input and output (I / O) flow. It retrieves instructions from main memory and decodes them into specific commands.
  2. Arithmetic logic device (ALU): Here, all processing is performed, including mathematical calculations and logical decision-making operations, such as comparing data.
  3. Registers: This is an extremely fast place in memory. The data and instructions that are currently being processed during the fetch-run cycle are stored there for quick access by the processor.

How does the processor work?

The processor can execute millions of instructions per second, but can only execute one instruction at a time.

It first receives some type of input, usually from an input device – such as a monitor screen, keyboard, mouse or microphone – from an application / system software, such as your web browser or operating system, or from memory.

It is then responsible for four tasks: retrieval, decoding, execution, and storage. (More on that in the next section.)

Finally, there is some way out, such as printing something on the screen.

This process is called a retrieval-execution cycle and occurs millions of times per second.

Execution retrieval

Source: The main processor cycle is called the fetch-run cycle and occurs millions of times per second.

What are the main tasks of the processor?

Let’s look at the four main tasks of the processor:

  1. Extraction involves receiving instructions from memory so that the processor knows how to handle the input and knows the relevant instructions for the specific input it has received. In particular, it looks for the address of the corresponding instruction and forwards the request to RAM (random access memory). The CPU and RAM are constantly working together in a process called “read from memory”.
  2. Decoding involves translating the instructions into a form that the processor can understand, which is machine language.
  3. Execution means following the instructions given.
  4. Storage is the result of the execution back into memory for later retrieval, if and when requested. This is also called a memory entry.

Basic processor conditions

Clock frequency

Expressed in gigahertz (GHz), the clock speed is a rough indication of how many calculations a processor can make each second. The higher the clock speed, the more calculations the processor can perform.


The thread is a virtual component that helps deliver workloads to the processor. The more threads you have, the faster the workloads are delivered and the easier they are organized, which leads to increased efficiency.

Threads are vital to the functionality of a computer because they determine how many tasks a computer can perform at any given time.

The number of threads you have depends on the number of cores in your processor. Each core can have two threads depending on the specific processor and whether hyperthreading is supported. For example, a dual-core processor may have four threads, and a quad-core processor may have eight threads.


Many modern processors support a technology called hyperthreading.

Hyperthreading works by making a single physical kernel look like multiple physical cores, allowing the operating system (OS) to take advantage of simultaneous instruction processing and increase computing power.


Think of the human body: if the threads are the hands, then the cores are the mouth.

Cores are separate physical devices in the main chip of the processor that act as independent processors, taking data from the threads and performing computational tasks. Software applications can be written so that multiple cores can run simultaneously to process program data, commonly referred to as multithreading.

How fast the processor can process data is affected by the number of available cores. The more cores a processor has, the more computing power it has. As a result, more tasks can be performed and performed simultaneously.

For example, a dual-core processor has two cores, which means that it has essentially two processors on the same chip and can execute two instructions simultaneously. An octa-core processor will be able to execute 8 instructions simultaneously.

Most modern server-class processors have at least 8 cores, and some configurations support more than 30 processor cores. Motherboards can contain multiple processors connected together via UPI or Intel® Ultra Path Interconnect.

processor cores Source: extreme Cores are separate physical devices in the main chip of the processor that act as independent processors, taking data from the threads and performing computational tasks.

Trenton processors and systems

Without its “brain” working at maximum efficiency, the functionality of the computer is compromised, which poses a risk to critical data and vital parts and components.

Equipped with a high number of cores and advanced cybersecurity technologiesprocessors help computers process and analyze data securely to improve computer performance in a wide range of environments.

At Trenton, we design our high-performance computers with next generation Intel® processors to improve throughput and ensure optimal real-time performance.

For example, our TAC is equipped with a dual Intel Xeon D 1700 processors. With 2.32x faster processing speeds and 5.73x faster artificial intelligence retrieval, these processors accelerate concurrent workloads and control bandwidth to improve tactical performance.

We are also a member of Intel Partner Alliance and a member Intel’s Early Access Program, which allows our customers to access Intel’s latest technologies before they hit the market.

Through increased efficiency provided by processorswe provide customized hardware and software solutions that provide the information you need to make critical decisions anywhere, anytime.

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